XAT2011 Related Question Answers

1. Read the  following  discussion/passage  and provide an appropriate answer for the questions that follow. Of the several features of the Toyota Production System that have been widely studied, most important is the mode of governance of the shop - floor at Toyota. Work and inter - relations between workers are highly scripted in extremely detailed ‘operating procedures’ that have to be followed rigidly, without any deviation at Toyota. Despite such rule - bound rigidity, however, Toyota does not become a ‘command - control system’. It is able to retain the character of a learning organizationIn fact, many observers characterize it as a community of scientists carrying out several small experiments simultaneously. The design of the operating procedure is the key. Every principal must find an expression in the operating procedure – that is how it has an effect in the domain of action. Workers on the shop - floor, often in teams, design the ‘operating procedure’ jointly with the supervisor through a series of hypothesis that are proposed and validated or refuted through experiments in action. The rigid and detailed ‘operating procedure’ specification throws up problems of the very minute kind; while its resolution leads to a reframing of the procedure and specifications. This inter - temporal change (or flexibility) of the specification (or operating procedure) is done at the lowest level of the organization; i.e. closest to the site of action. One implication of this arrangement is that system design can no longer be rationally optimal and standardized across the organization. It is quite common to find different work norms in contiguous assembly lines, because each might have faced a different set of problems and devised different counter - measures to tackle it. Design of the coordinating process that essentially imposes the discipline that is required in large - scale complex manufacturing systems is therefore customized to variations in man - machine context of the site of action. It evolves through numerous points of negotiation throughout the organization. It implies then that the higher levels of the hierarchy do not exercise the power of the fiat in setting work rules, for such work rules are no longer a standard set across the whole organization. It might be interesting to go through the basic Toyota philosophy that underlines its system designing practices. The notion of the ideal production system in Toyota embraces the following -‘the ability to deliver just - in - time (or on demand) a customer order in the exact specification demanded, in a batch size of one (and hence an infinite proliferation of variants, models and specifications), defect - free, without wastage of material, labour, energy or motion in a safe and (physically and emotionally) fulfilling production environment’. It did not embrace the concept of a standardized product that can be cheap by giving up variations. Preserving consumption variety was seen, in fact, as one mode of serving society. It is interesting to note that the articulation of the Toyota philosophy was made around roughly the same time that the Fordist system was establishing itself in the US automotive industry. What can be best defended as the asset which Toyota model of production leverages to give the vast range of models in a defect - free fashion?

2. Which of the following can be best defended as a pre-condition for the Toyota type of production system to work?

3. Based on the above passage, which of the following statements is best justified?

4. What could be the best defence of the “different work norms in contiguous assembly lines”?

5. The author has _________ his composition to the best of his _________; yet listen to it with a sympathetic ___________, O _____________ souls, and judge it. The option that best fills the blanks in the above sentence would be:

6. There is much difficulty ________ getting ________ this place and it is not possible to reach ___________ without the grace of the lord. The option that best fills the blanks in the above sentence would be:

7. _________ you have a doubt, why not go and verify? I shall be waiting in the shade ________ this banyan tree till you come back _________ me.The option that best fills the blanks in the above sentence would be:

8. Pick the odd one out:

9. Analyse the following passage and provide appropriate answers that follow.We can answer Fermi’s Paradox in two ways. Perhaps our current science over - estimates the likelihood of extraterrestrial intelligence evolving. Or, perhaps, evolved technical intelligence has some deep tendency to be self - limiting, even self - exterminating. After Hiroshima, some suggested that any aliens bright enough to make colonizing space ships would be bright enough to make thermonuclear bombs, and would use them on each other sooner or later.I suggest a different, even darker solution to the Paradox. Basically, I think the aliens forget to send radio signals or colonize space because they’re too busy with runaway consumerism and virtual - reality narcissism. Once they turn inwards to chase their shiny pennies of pleasure, they lose the cosmic plot.The fundamental problem is that an evolved mind must pay attention to indirect cues of biological fitness, rather than tracking fitness itself. This was a key insight of evolutionary psychology in the early 1990s; although evolution favours brains that tend to maximize fitness (as measured by numbers of great - grandkids), no brain has capacity enough to do so under every possible circumstance. As a result, brains must evolve shortcuts: fitness - promoting tricks, cons, recipes and heuristics that work, on an average, under ancestrally normal conditions. Technology is fairly good at controlling external reality to promote real biological fitness, but it’s even better at delivering fake fitness - subjective cues of survival and reproduction without the real - world effects.Fitness - faking technology tends to evolve much faster than our psychological resistance to it. With the invention of Xbox 360, people would rather play a high - resolution virtual ape in Peter Jackson’s King Kong than be a perfect – resolution real human. Teens today must find their way through a carnival of addictively fitness - faking entertainment products. The traditional staples of physical, mental and social development - athletics, homework dating - are neglected. The few young people with the self - control to pursue the meritocratic path often get distracted at the last minute.Around 1900, most inventions concerned physical reality and in 2005 focus shifted to virtual entertainment. Freud’s pleasure principle triumphs over the reality principle. Today we narrow - cast human - interest stories to each other, rather than broadcasting messages of universal peace and progress to other star systems.Maybe the bright aliens did the same. I suspect that a certain period of fitness - faking narcissism is inevitable after any intelligent life evolves. This is the Great Temptation for any technological species – to shape their subjective reality to provide the cues of survival and reproductive success without the substance. Most bright alien species probably go extinct gradually, allocating more time and resources to their pleasures and less to their children.Heritable variation in personality might allow some lineages to resist the Great Temptation and last longer. Some individuals and families may start with an “irrational” Luddite abhorrence of entertainment technology, and they may evolve ever more self - control, conscientiousness and pragmatism by combining the family values of the religious right with the sustainability values of the Greenpeace. They wait patiently for our fitness - faking narcissism to go extinct. Those practical - minded breeders will inherit the Earth as like - minded aliens may have inherited a few other planets. When they finally achieve contacts, it will not be a meeting of novel - readers and game - players. It will be a meeting of dead - serious super - parents who congratulate each other on surviving not just the Bomb, but the Xbox.Among the following options, which one represents the most important concern raised in the passage?

10. Which among the following would be the best possible explanation for the lack of contact between human beings and aliens?

11. To which of the following statements would the author of the passage agree the most?

12. Which of the following statements, if true, challenges the ideas presented in the passage the most? I. Violent crime, including gang warfare for turf protection and expansion, co - exists in all technological advanced societies in spite of proliferation of fitness - faking technologies. II. The technology to produce fitness - faking gadgets is guided by the government’s desire to control the minds of citizens and keep citizens away from engaging in trouble - making activities. III. Countries that have the most advanced technology often are the ones that are at the forefront of preparedness for wars. IV. The era of colonial expansion that was engaged in by the European nations after the renaissance would have never taken place had the technology to produce fitness - faking gadgets existed during those times. V. Teenagers having access to technology, engage in more socializing away from parental supervision than those who do not have access to such technology.

13. Nature is ___________ and unchangeable, and it is ___________ as to whether its hidden reasons and ___________ are __________to man or not.The option that best fills the blanks in the above sentence would be:

14. Impressions are direct, vivid, and forceful products of immediate experience; ideas are merely feeble copies of these original impressions.Assuming the above statement is true, which of the statements logically follow from it? I. Every impression leads to an idea. II. Ideas must follow an antecedent impression. III. The colour of the 2011 XAT test booklet right in front of a candidate is an impression to her, whereas the memory of the colour of her television set is an idea. IV. If one was interested in origin of the idea of the colour of a television set, then one need to understand the impressions from which this idea was derived.

15. Media are not just passive channels of information. Not only do they supply the stuff of thought, but they also shape the process of thought. And what the internet seems to be doing is chipping away our capacity for concentration. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argument presented above?

16. Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument presented in the previous question?

17. Randomness has to be dealt with successfully to ensure a better control over one’s life. Before one can deal effectively with randomness, one must acknowledge its existence. The above statement implies the following except:

18. Perhaps this war will pass like the others which divided us, leaving us dead, killing us along with the killers but the shame of this time puts its burning fingers to our faces. Who will erase the ruthlessness hidden in innocent blood? Which of the following is certainly not implied in the above verse?

19. Travelling is my hobby. Today in the Himalayas, as I drag my feet through the __________, I cannot but think of the same time last year when I was negotiating the thick _________ of the Ganges delta or for that matter the time I spent with my children __________ about in the waters of the Arabian Sea. The option that best fills the blanks in the above sentence would be:

20. In spite of being perceived as ______ by all, the club members decided to ______ Arun, a skinny teenage with prominent ___________, as the member of the year, so that the whole affair would be __________ to Arun’s father who was recuperating after a serious illness. The option that best fills the blanks in the above sentence would be:

21. Few sentences are given below continuously. Identify the best sequence of punctuations among the given option s. (The rule of capitalization at the beginning of sentences has been ignored in the passage given below). Note: the arrows in the options indicate text that would be within the punctuations. a persons frames of perception and action are narrow in early stages of development focused on social membership and technical competence the early life of the organizations often is focused on survival and efficiency only later and rarely emphasizing process of learning and development however in later stages both individual and organization become more concerned with the learning process itself the way the perceptions and practices are articulated and revised in interactions and how more people can be engaged in mutual learning and inquiry

22. Choose the odd one:

23. Read the following sentences and choose the option that best arranges them in a logical order. 1. In law a fiduciary individual is someone who is entrusted with the power to act on behalf of and for the benefit of another. 2. Following the weight of corporate law and legal precedent, the director primacy model positions directors as autonomous fiduciaries, not agents. 3. The term fiduciary derives from the Latin fiducia, or trust, and the fiduciary is expected to act in good faith and honesty for the beneficiary’s interests. 4. A person who accepts the role of fiduciary in law must single - mindedly pursue the interests of his or her beneficiary, in this case the corporation, even when the latter cannot monitor or control the fiduciary’s behaviour.

24. Read the sentences and choose the option that best arranges them in a logical order.a. Generally, it is unusual for a new problem in international relations to be considered without at the same time some international organization being developed to deal with it. b. International society has, in spite of the diversity of culture and political systems, been progressively drawn closer together and become more unified. c. Despite the fears and concerns of some governments that international organizations are increasing too fast and that they are a burden on their exchequers, they are still proliferating at a considerable rate. d. People and their governments now look far beyond national frontiers and feel a common responsibility for the major problems of the world and for lesser problems that may subsist within smaller groups of states. e. More recently in the 1990s the problems of international trade, which was growing increasingly complex, led to the development of the WTO. f. For instance, concern with the instability of commodities markets led to the establishment in the 1980s of the Common Fund for Commodities and the competition for the newly discovered wealth of the international seabed area resulted in the creation of the ISA under the Law of the Sea Convention of 1982, based on the concept of the ‘the common heritage of mankind’.

25. As the information on air warfare tasks and stressors was being gathered and scenarios were being developed, a parallel effort ensued to identify a test bed simulation for air warfare teams. To maintain experimental control, it was determined by the designers that choosing a low physical fidelity simulation was acceptable as long as cognitive fidelity in a team simulation was maintained through subjecting soldiers to pressure situations in a simulated combat setting and attempting to ensure that naturalistic decision making of soldiers would not be compromised. Which of the following statements, if true, weakens the logic of the above passage? i. A number of studies have shown that high levels of physical stress lead to a weakening of the decision - making capabilities of human beings. ii. It has been convincingly demonstrated by various studies that human beings by nature are not designed to adapt to high levels of mental stress. iii. Numerous studies have shown that simulated environments can be designed to be good substitutes for real - life combat situations. iv. Studies have shown that simulated exercises for armed forces personnel have tended to induce a systematic type of “correct” and common behaviour among the trainees. v. Officers, when short - listing soldiers for critical operations, pick up battle - hardened soldiers rather than those who have been trained through simulations.

Terms And Service:We do not guarantee the accuracy of available data ..We Provide Information On Public Data.. Please consult an expert before using this data for commercial or personal use
DMCA.com Protection Status Powered By:Omega Web Solutions
© 2002-2017 Omega Education PVT LTD...Privacy | Terms And Conditions