*Acid test : a decisive test to determine whether something is genuine or valid.
*Across the board : all or everything, or a total and complete achievement
*Sweep the board : win everything
*All singing ali dancing : full of features/ gimmicks,
*Amateur: non professional or unpaid.
*Alma mater : (my) university from the Latin, meaning ’fostering mother’,
*Apple of his eye/apple of your eye/apple of my eye: a person much adored or doted on, loved, held dearly.
*Take a back seat :  have tittle or only obsessional involvement in something,
*Bring home the bacon : achieve a challenge,
*Barbarian :rough or wild person.
*Blood is thicker than water: family loyalties  are greater than those between friends.
*Bolt from the blue : sudden shock or surprise.
*Give me a break/give him a break : make allowance tolerate, overlook a mistake.
*Bulls and bear..................
*1856 - 62 - Lord Canning
*1862 - 63 - Lord Elgin
*1864 - 69 - Sir John Lawrence
*1869 - 72 - Lord Mayo
*1872 - 76 - Lord North Brook
*1876 - 80 - Lord Lytton
*1880 - 84 - Lord Rippon
*1884 - 88 - Lord Dufferin
*1888 - 94 - Lord Lansdowne
*1894 - 99 - Lord Elgin II
*1899 - 1905 - Lord Curzon
*1905 - 10 - Lord Minto
*1910 - 16 - Lord Hardinge II
*1916 - 21 - Lord Chelmsford
*1921 - 26 - Lord Reading
*1926 - 31 - Lord Irwin
*1931 - 36 - Lord Willington
*1936 - 43 - Lord Linlithgow
*1943 - 47 - Lord Wavell
*March 1947 August 1948 - Lord Mount Batten
*1948 -1950 - C.Rajagopalachari

*Rent Act (1859)
*The Indian Penal Code (1860)
*The Indian High Court Act (1861)
*Indian Council Act (1861)

LORD C..................
*First person to receive Bharat Ratna 
Ans : C.Rajagopalachari
*The person popularly known as Rajaji & C.R 
Ans : C.Rajagopalachari
*The person known as the warrior from the South
Ans : C.Rajagopalachari
*The leader who founded Swatantra Party
Ans : C.Rajagopalachari
*The person who was described as 'keeper of my conscience' by Gandhiji
Ans : C.Rajagopalachari
*Person known as "Vedaranyam Gandhi"
Ans : C.Rajagopalachari
*The Indian Political leader who acquired the nick name 'the mango of Krishnagiri' 
Ans : C.Rajagopalachari


*Declaration of Partition of Bengal was held on
Ans : July 20,1905
*Partition of Bengal was announced by
Ans : Lord Curzon
*Partition of Bengal came into effect on
Ans : October 16,1905
*October 16..................
*Tattwabodhini Sabha was founded by 
Ans : Debendranath Tagore
*Tattwabodhini Sabha was founded in
Ans : 1839
*Earlier name of Tattwabodhini Sabha
Ans : Tattvaranjini Sabha
*The magazine of Tattwabodhini Sabha
Ans : Tattwabodhini Patrika
*Tattwabodhini Sabha was dissolved back into the Brahmo Samaj by Debendranath Tagore in
Ans : 1859 

*Shuddhi movement was started by 
Ans : Dayananda Saraswati 
*Converting outcasts from other religions to Hinduism is the major objective of
Ans : Shuddhi movement 
*In 1923, the 'Bhartiya Hindu Shuddhi Mahasabha' (Indian Hindu Purification Council) was founded by
Ans : Swami Shraddhanand

*Prarthana Samaj was founded by 
Ans : Atmaram Pandurang
*Prarthana Samaj was founded wit..................
Indian National Congress
*The predecessor of Indian National Congress
Ans :Indian National Union
*Indian National Union was formed in 
Ans : 1884
*The Organisation which was formed in Bombay during the formation of INC 
Ans : Seva Sadan
*Indian National Congress was formed on 
Ans : December 28,1885
*Indian National Congress was founded by 
Ans : A.O. Hume
*First General Secretary of INC 
Ans : A.O. Hume 
*First president of INC 
Ans : W.C Bannerjee
*The venue of the first session of Indian National congress was fixed at 
Ans : Pune
*The venue of first session of INC was shifted to
Ans : Gokul Das Tejpal Sanskrit College Bombay
*The venue of first session of INC was shifted from Pune to Bombay due to the outbreak of
Ans : Plague
*Number of representatives who attended the first session of INC 
Ans : 7..................
*World Population day
Ans : July 11
*Population Explosion Theory was propounded by
Ans : Thomas Robert Malthus 
*Census in India is held once in 
Ans : 10 years
*First population policy was declared in Ans : 1976 National Population Fund *was formed in 
Ans : 2003
*National Census Survey is conducted by
Ans : Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India
*Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India comes under the administrative control of
Ans : Ministry of Home Affairs
*First Census in India was started by
Ans : Lord Mayo (1872)
*First Regular Census was started by Ans : Lord Ripon (1881)
*First Census in Free India was conducted in 
Ans : 1951
*India's Census was started by collecting the data of
Ans : The President of India 
*In States, the Census began by collecting the data of
Ans : Gove..................
*The number of spokes in Ashoka Chakra 
Ans : 24
*Colour of Ashoka Chakra
Ans : Navy blue
*Cloth used to make National Flag
*New flag code of India is adopted in
Ans : January 26, 2002
*As per the flag code of India, the smallest size of National Flag is
Ans : 6" X 4"
*The tallest National Flag in India is situated at
Ans : Attari (Punjab)
*Indian National Flag can be made by
Ans : 9 types
*The only unit in India, that is authorised to manufacture and supply the National flag of India
Ans : Karnataka Khadi Gramodyoga Samyukta Sangha (Hubli, Karnataka).
*The ceremony of raising National Flag on the Lahori Gate in Red Fort on every Independence day was started from
Ans : 1947
*The countries; having National flags similar to India
*The studies of Flags is called 
Ans : Vexillology
* First woman to raise Indian National 
Ans : Bhikaiji C..................
*The branch of science concerned with the nature and properties of matter and energy
Ans : Physics
*Scientists known as fathers of Physics
Ans : Einstein,Newton and Galileo
*Father of Nuclear Physics
Ans : Ernest Rutherford
*Father of Indian Nuclear Programme
Ans : Homi.J.Bhabha

*The chosen standard used for measuring a physical quantity is called
Ans : Unit
*Units are classified into
Ans : Two
*Two types of Units are
Ans : Fundamental Units and Derived Units
*The Units of fundamental quantities which can't be derived from any other quantities
Ans : Fundamental Units
*Fundamental units can be expressed in 3 kinds of measuring systems such as
Ans : CGS, MKS and FPS
* The Units which are derived from fundamental units 
Ans : Derived Units

*The amount of water vapour present in air is called
Ans : Humidity
*When humidity occurs, perspiration is 
Ans : Maximum
*Humidity indicates perspiration, dew or fog etc

*The process by which a substance is changed from solid state to liquid state is, called
Ans : Melting
*The fixed temperature at which a substance is changed from solid state to liquid state is called 
Ans : Melting point 
*Melting point of ice can be raised by the decrease of
Ans : Pressure

*Mercury -    -39 degree C
*Alcohol -    -114 degree C
*Ice -    -0 degree C

*When liquid boils and changes itself into vapour at standard atmospheric pressure is called
Ans : Boiling point 
*When pressure incre..................
*Altimeter : an apparatus used in aircraft for measuring altitudes
*Accumulator : used for storing electrical energy
*Amplifier helps to increase the strength of electrical signals 
*Ammeter : used to measure Electric current
*Anemometer : instrument for measuring the force and velocity of wind
*Audiometer : an instrument to measure intensity of so
*Audiophone : an instrument required to amplify sound and is worn to compensate for poor hearing
*Barograph : for continuous recording of atmospheric pressure
*Barometer is an apparatus used for measuring the atmospheric pressure
*Calorimeter : an instrument used for measuring quantities of heat
*Cardiogram a medical instrument used for tracing heart movements
*Commutator : split ring which forms the main part of a D.C. Dynamo
*Crescograph : is an instrument for recording growth of plants[/..................
* Father of Chemistry 
Ans : Robert Boyle 
* The author of the book 'Sceptical Chymist' is 
Ans : Robert Boyle 
* Father of Modern Chemistry
Ans : Antoine Lavoisier 
* Father of Indian Chemistry 
Ans : P.C.Roy
* Father of Organic Chemistry 
Ans : Friedrich Wohler 
* Ancient Chemistry is known as 
Ans : Alchemy
* Ancient Chemists were known as 
Ans : Alchemists
* The scientist known as the father of Sodapop 
Ans : Joseph Priestly 
* International year of chemistry 
Ans : 2011
*New methods used in chemistry which aim to reduce pollution are called
Ans : Green Chemistry
*The term Green Chemistry was coined by
Ans : Paul.T.Anastas

There are seven stable physical states
1) Solid
2) Liquid
3) Gas
4) P..................
*Mass Number -1
*Ordinary Hydrogen
*Abundant isotope
*Atom having no neutron
*Only one atom having same atomic number and mass number

*Mass Number - 2 
*Heavy Hydrogen
*Used for manufacturing Hydrogen bomb
*Deuterium Oxide (D20) is known as heavy water
*It is used as moderator in nuclear reactor 
*Having only one neutron

*Mass Number - 3 
*Simplest radioactive isotope 
*Having two neutrons

HELIUM (He) (Z=2)
*1st noble gas group in the periodic table 
Ans : Helium
*Second lightest element 
Ans : Helium
*The element shows highest thermal conductivity
Ans : Helium
*2nd most abundant element in universe 
Ans : Helium..................
CHLORINE (Cl) (Z= 17)
*The scientist who discovered and isolated the chlorine gas
Ans : Carl Scheele
*The scientist who recognized chlorine as an element
Ans : Humphry Davy
*The second element having highest reactivity
Ans : Chlorine
*The colour of Chlorine gas 
Ans : Pale yellow green
*The organic compound which contains chlorine
Ans : DDT, BHC, Chloroform, Freon 
*Chloroform was discovered by 
Ans : James Young Simpson 
*The poisonous substance produced when the chlorine is exposed 
Ans : Phosgene
*The gas which was used as chemical weapon in the First World War 
Ans : Phosgene
*The element used to purify the water in swimming pool 
Ans : Chlorine
*The element used as an oxidising agent 
Ans : Chlorine
*The element used as a bleaching agent 
Ans : Chlorine
*The most abundant element present i..................
*Father of Biology 
Ans : Aristotle
*The term Biology was first coined by 
Ans : Lamarck
*Father of Zoology 
Ans : Aristotle
*The living beings were classified into two (plants and animals) by 
Ans : Aristotle
*The animals were classified into animal with red blood and without red blood by 
Ans : Aristotle
*The famous book of Aristotle 
Ans : History of Animals 
*Father of botany
Ans : Theophrastus
*The famous book of Theophrastus 
Ans : Historia plantum
*The branch of biology which deals with the study of origin of life
Ans : Abiogenesis 
*The life originated from 
Ans : Water
*The first successful experiment based on the origin of life was done by 
Ans : A.I. Oparin (1932)
*First life is a microbes having the capacity of
Ans : Photosynthesis
*The basic Chemical unit of..................
*Healthy man has
Ans : 5-6 litre blood volume
*The study of blood is known as 
Ans : Haematology
*The pigment that gives red colour to the blood.
Ans : Haemoglobin
*The normal concentration of haemoglobin in male
Ans : 14.5g/ 100ml
*The normal concentration of haemoglobin in female
Ans : 13.5gm/ml
*Basic unit of Haemoglobin
Ans : Amino acids
*Haemoglobins are present in
Ans : RBC
*Blood is known as the
Ans : River of life
*Blood is a type of
Ans : Vascular connective tissue
*Epithelium is a tissue devoid of
Ans : Blood
*The blood cells known as the warrior of the body
Ans : WBC
*Haemoglobin contains iron and protein parts
*The colourless fluid connective tissue is
Ans : Lymph
*Largest lymph gland is
Ans : Spleen
*Mollusca has - Blue coloured blood
*Study of liver is called 
Ans : Hepatology
*The largest waste disposal organ in the body
Ans : Liver
*The largest gland in the body
Ans : Liver
*Human Liver weighs about
*Liver is the organ that liberate the largest amount of
Ans : Heat
*The organ that stores large amount of lion
Ans : Liver
*The only organ that synthesize and store Vitamin A and Fat
Ans : Liver
*The colour of the liver
Ans : Reddish brown colour
*The excess amino acids in the body breaks into Ammonia in
Ans : Liver
*The product ammonia from liver combines with carbon dioxide to form
Ans : Urea
*Most number of enzymes are secreted by
Ans : Liver
*The only human internal organ capable of natural regeneration
Ans : Liver
*Hepatitis A spread through 
Ans : Water
*Liver Xerosis is the disease cause..................
*The study of universe is known as 
Ans : Cosmology
*The universe comprises of billions of 
Ans : Galaxies
*The galaxies are made up of millions of 
Ans : Stars
*Father of modern Astronomy 
Ans : Copernicus
*The astronomer known as the Law Giver of Heavens 
Ans : Kepler
*Light year and parsec are the units of measuring distances in the
Ans : Universe
*The distance travelled by light in one year is called
Ans : One light year
*One light year = 9.46 x 1012 kilometers 
*An astronomical unit of distance 
Ans : Parsec
*One parsec = 3.26 light year
*Scientist who found universe is expanding, in 1929
Ans : Sir Edwin Hubble
*Geocentric theory was propounded (the Earth was the centre of universe) by
Ans : Ptolemy
*Heliocentric theory was propounded (the Sun is the centre of the universe) by
*Father of indian space programme 
Ans : Vikram Sarabhai
*First rocket launching station in india 
Ans : Thumba(1962)
*First rocket launched from Thumba
Ans : Nike Appache(1963)
*First chairman of ISRO
Ans : Vikram Sarabhai
*The rocket launching station which lies near to the equator
Ans : Thumba
*TERLS was formally dedicated to the United Nations on
Ans : February 2,1968
*The Rocket launched from Thumba on the 50th anniversary of first rocket launch
Ans : RH 200
*Rocket RH 200 was launched on
Ans : November 21,2013
*Indian Space department, and Space commission came into existence in
Ans : 1972
*First satellite of India
Ans : Aryabhatta
*Aryabhatta was launched on
Ans : Apirl 19,1975
*Aryabhatta was launched from
Ans : Volgo Grad (Russia)
*Second satellite from India
Ans : Bhask..................
* Father of Civil Aviation in India 
Ans : J.R.D Tata
* First air transport in India was started on 
Ans : February 18,1911
*World's first National Aviation Company 
Ans : Imperial Airways
*The National Airways company of Britain
Ans : Imperial Airways
*First domestic air route between Karachi and Delhi was operated by
Ans : Imperial Airways 
*First Airline Service to India 
Ans : Imperial Airways
*Airmail Service was started in India in 
Ans : 1911
*Regular Airmail Service between Karachi and Bombay was started by
Ans : Royal Air force (January 24,1920)
*Aero club of India was established in 
Ans : 1927
*First person in India who got a valid air licence 
Ans : J.R.D. Tata (1929)
*Tata Airlines was founded by
Ans : J.R.D. Tata (1932)
*First Service of Tata Airlines
Ans : Ka..................
*Postal stamp is described as
Ans : First Ambassador of a State
*Father of Postal Stamp
Ans : Rowland Hill
*First postal stamp in the world
Ans : Penny Black
*Penny black was issued on
Ans : May 1,1840
*Penny black was issued by
Ans : Britain
*Price of penny black
Ans : One penny
*The Person who worked for the first postal stamp named penny black
Ans : Rowland Hill
*The name of Penny black was changed to 
Ans : Penny red in
*First country to introduced postal system
Ans : Egypt
*First country to introduce modern postal system
Ans : England
*Second postal stamp in the world
Ans : Penny blue
* Hobby of stamp collection is known as
Ans : Philately
*King of Hobbies
Ans : Philately
*Hobby of Post Card collection
Ans : Deltiology
*The year in which stam..................
*Ancient centres of education in India were
Ans : Nalanda and Taxila
*Nalanda is located at
Ans : Patna
*Nalanda University was founded by Kumara Gupta Nalanda was destroyed by Bhakhtiyar 
Ans : Khilji
*Nalanda University was completely destroyed in
Ans : 1193
*The ruins of Nalanda is found in 
Ans : Bargaon (near Patna)
*The ruins of Nalanda was excavated by 
Ans : Alexander Cunningham 
*Taxila is located in
Ans : Rawalpindi (Pakistan)
*The ruins of Taxila is found in 
Ans : Rawalpindi
*The ruins of Vikram Shila is found in 
Ans : Bihar
*The highest degree given in Vikram Shila 
Ans : Pandit
*Famous learning centre in South India was 
Ans : Kanchi (TN)
*Modern education in India was started in 
Ans : 1813
*The act which gave a new momentum to the modern education in Ind..................
*The device that can be programmed to carry out a set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically
Ans : Computer
*The term 'computer' is originated from the of
Ans : Latin
*The term computer is originated from the word
Ans : Computerae 
*'Computerae' means
Ans : To compute or calculate 
*The book which used the word 'computer' for the first time
Ans : Yong Mans Gleanings 
*Yong Mans Gleanings was authored by 
Ans : Richard Braithwaite
*The invention which is known as the beginning history of computer 
Ans : Abacus
*Father of computer
Ans : Charles Babbage
*Autobiography of Charles Babbage
Ans : A passage from the life of a philosopher
*Main features of a computer
Ans : Speed, Accuracy, Storage Diligence, Capacity and Versatility
*The digital calculator invented by Blaise language  pascal
*A set of computers connected together for the purpose of sharing resources
Ans : Computer Network
*Computers on a network are called
Ans : Nodes
*The computers may be connected via any data communication link like wires, cables, satellite links other communication media
*The computer which acts like a workstation on the Network
Ans : User's computer
*To exchange information all over the world, millions of computers are connected through a
Ans : Network

*LAN (Local Area Network)
*WAN (Wide Area Network)
*MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)
*PAN (Personal Area Network)

*The network that span a relatively small area
Ans : Local Area Network
*Most LAN connects workstations with
Ans : Personal computers
*The system in which ..................
*Abandon - Give up
*Abase - humiliate, degrade
*Abbreviate - abridge, shorten
*Abhor - hate
*Abrupt - sudden
*Abundant - plenty mishap
*Accident - accomplish
*Achieve - accomplish
*Acquitted - freed
*Affluent - prosperous
*Alien - exotic,foreign
*Allude - mention
*Altercation - controversy
*Altitude - height
*Amenable - responsive
*Amicable - friendly
*Analogy - comparison
*Antagonistic - hostile 
*Antique - ancient
*Apologize - regret
*Applaud - praise
*Apprehension - fear
*Arid - dry
*Asperity - harshness, roughness 
*Astonishment - surprise
*Authentic - genuine
*Avaricious - greedy
*Aversion - dislike 
*Avid ..................

ab initio - from the beginning
ad hoc -  for a specified purpose
ad infinitum - endlessly
ad interim - in the meantime
ad valorem - according to value
aide-de-camp - military assistant
alter ego - intimate friend
aiumni - old students of an inistitution
a propos - referring to that point
bona fide - in good faith 
bete noire - a special object to dislike
bon voyage - wish a good journey  
carte blanche - blank cheque, un-restricted power to act on one's own
corpus delicti - the substance of the offence
caveat emptor- let the buyer beware
coup d'etat - change of govt by force
coup de grace - finishing blow
coup de main - sudden overpowering attack
de facto - in fact
de jure - in law
detenu - prisoner
de nova - afresh
deus ex machine - a contrived device to resolve a situati..................
*Laws of Exponents is the weak area of many students but actually this is not a hardnut. By studying formulae and then solving the problems make it easier.
*A long product 'axaxax.....m' factors can be denoted as 'am', where 'a' is the base and "m" is the power (or index or exponent).
Thus, axaxax.................10 factors = a10

a^mxa^n = a^m+n
a^m/a^n = a^m-n if m > n
(a^m)n  = a^mn

= (4^3)1/3x(4^2)1/2 X4^2X4^-1
= 4^1 x 4^1 x 4^2 x 4^-1 =4^1+1+2-1
= 4^3 
= 64
2.(3^2)3 x (3^3)2 / 3^9 = ?
3^6X3^6/3^9 =3^12/3^9
= 3^3 = 27
3.If (a/b)^x-1 =(b/a)^x-3,  find the value of x.
ie, x - 1 = -x + 3 
2x =4 
Ratio and Proportion is the portion from where a wide variety of questions are asked in various competitive exams. You must workout all the types in detail because in all exams, questions of almost all types are asked. 

Ratio is a comparison between two quantities by division. The number of times one quantity contains another quantity of the same kind is called the ratio of the two quantities.The numbers forming the ratio are called "Terms" of the ratio. The ratio between
a and b is denoted as a:b or a/b Here,and b are the terms of the ratio. The first term "a" is called the "Antecedent" and the second tem "b" is called the "Consequent"

1.If P:Q =2:3 and
Q:R = 4:5 what is P:R 
P : Q = 2 : 3 __ (i)
Q : R =4:5___(ii)
(i) x4 :=>
P : Q = 8 : 12 
(ii) x3 =>
Q: R= 12:15

*Curved surface area = 2?rh
*Total surface area
= 27?r2 + 27?rh = 27?r(r+h)
*Volume = ?r2h

1. If the curved surface area of a cylinder is 450 cm and the radius is 7 cm, find the total surface area.
Curved surface area = 2?rrh = 450cm
Total surface area = 27?r2 + 2?rh
= 2? x 7 x 7 + 450
= 2x22/7x7x7+450 
=308 + 450=758cm2
2.If the height and diameter of a Cylinder
are 49cm and 20 cm respectively, find its volume.
V =?r2h r= 20/2
= 15400
.'.Volume of the cylinder = 15400cm3

*Volume, V = (side)3
*Total Surface Area,A=6a2
*Diagonal, d = -/3a
*Area of 4 walls, A=4a2

Calander is an inevitable part of our life. There will be atleast one Calander in our home, office, mobile phones, etc. Days, months and years are passing so fastly that time has come to change the mind calander.
*Calander measures a day, a week, a month and a year, ie Calander is the measurement of an year.

*An ordinary year consists of 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 47 1/2 seconds or approximately 365.2422 days.
*In a month, every 7th day before or after any date will be the same day. ie, if 8th May is Friday then 1st, 15th, 22nd and 29th of May will all be Fridays.

In a given period, number of days more than the complete weeks are called odd days.
An ordinary year consists of 52 weeks and one odd day [ie, 365 = (52 x 7)  1]. So if January 1st of an ordinary year is Monday, then December 31st of that year will also be Monday..................
Numbers form the basic units in Mathematics. After studying the basic formulae and operations you will be able to apply those in solving problems.Numbers are the collection of certain symbols or figures called digits. Different systems were evolved in different parts of the world for the purpose of numbering. The common number system in use is the Decimal number system. In this system, we use digits as 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 and 9. A combination of these digits representing a number is called a numeral.
Face value is equal to the value of the digit itself, irrespective of its place in the numeral.Place value is equal to the place of the given digit. We begin from the extreme right as unit's place, ten's place, hundred's place, thousand's place and so on.
2763945 Face value    Place value
1)5 5                         5x10°= 5
2)4 ..................
All of you can answer these types of questions simply. But the fact is that you must answer these questions in the required time. For that you should have lot of practice along with studying.
Basic Arithmetic Operations are Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division.
1.The addition of two positive numbers will always give a positive number.
Eg:- (a) 5  2 = 7 (b) 7  2 = 9
2.The addition of two negative numbers will always give a negative number.
Eg:- (a) -2-4 = -6 
(b) -7-2 = -9
3.The result of addition of a positive number and a negative number will be the difference of these two numbers with the sign of the greater number.
Eg:- (a) -2  8 = 6
(b) -7  2 = -5 
4.If the sum of two numbers is 0, then both numbers are 'additive inverses' of each ot..................
*You all have studied how to find LCM and HCF in your LP-UP classes. But how many of you can still solve these kind of problems?*There will be problems based on these in various competetive exams. (both direct and indirect). So do your best in this portion.
If a number 'x' divides another number 'y' exactly, then we say that 'x is a factor of 'y' and that 'y is a multiple of x'. For example, 5 is a factor of 10 and therefore 10 is a multiple of 5.
LCM is the least non-zero number in common multiples of two or more numbers.
Multiple of 4- 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, etc 
Multiple of 5- 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, etc 
Multiple of 6- 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, etc
*Common multiples of 4 and 5 = 20, 40, etc
Least Common Multiple (LCM) = 20
*Common multiples of 5 and 6 = 30, 60, etc
Least Common Multipl..................
When a number is multiplied by same number, the result is called square of the number.
X x X = x2
x2 is the square of the number x.
Square number ending  in  5
Step I
Multiply the first digit by itself plus one.
Eg:- 35^2
So 3 x (3 1) = 12
Step II
Write the number 5^2 = 25
next to the result from Step I
So 1225
.'. 35^2 = 1225
2nd =>5^2=25
1^2 =1 16^2= 256
2^2 = 4 17^2 =289
3^2 =9 18^2= 324
4^2 = 16 19^2=361
5^2 = 25 20^2=400
6^2 =36 21^2= 4..................
Problems based on ages are frequently asked In all exams. Actually, it is a very easy topic. First of all you should carefully read the question and form linear equations based on that and then solve those equations to find the age.
1.Midhun's age after 10 years will be 4 times his age 8 years back. What is the present age of Midhun
Let the present age be x 
After 10 yrs => x  10 = 4(x - 8) 
x  10 = 4x- 32
3x = 42 
x = 14
.'.The present age of Midhun is 14 yrs.
2.Raji's age is 3 times that of Simi at present. After 15 years, Raji's age will be 2 times that of Simi. Then what is the present age of Raji
Let the present age of Simi be x.
Then, Raji's age = 3x 
After 15 years =>3x  15 = 2(x  15) 
3x  15 = 2x  30 
x =15
.'.Raji's age = 3 x 15 = 45 years
Average is the area where you can score maximum marks in minimum time. So study and practice maximum questions. Getting average marks in competitive exams do not help in achieving good job.
*Average=Sum of all observations/ Number of observations
*If the average of 'm' observations is 'x' and the average of'n' observations is V then the Average of the new group formed by combining the two groups is
Average=mx  ny/mn
1. Find the average of all prime numbers between 30 and 50. Prime numbers between 30 and 50 = 31, 37, 41, 43 and 47
Average =sum/number
=31  374143  47/5
2.The average weight of P, Q and R is 45 kg. If the weight of P and Q is 40kg and that of Q and R is 43kg, find the weight of Q.
P  Q  R= 45 x 3 = 135kg
P  Q = 40 x 2 = 80 kg
QR = 43 x ..................
More than two questions are asked from this area in ail exams. So studying this topic in detail is a must so that your rank will be higher than others.
1.If a person can do a piece of work in 'n' days, work done by him in one day = 1/n
2.If work done by a person in one day is' / n 'then he 030 finish the whole work in'n'days.
3. If Mx persons can do W1 works in D1 days for T1 hours and M2 persons can do W2 works in D2 days for T2 hours, then.
M1D1T1W2 = M2D2T2W1
1.If 20 men can complete a piece of work in 10 days, then how many men are required to complete the work in 50 days.
= M1D1T1W1 =M2D2T2W1
there, W1= W2 = 1
20 x 10 = M2 x 50
M2 = 4
4 men are required to complete the work in 50 days.
2.40 men can cut 50 trees in 5 hours. If 4 men leave the job, how many trees will be cut in 9 hours?[/b..................
These are also part of our daily life. You may have noticed the time required to fill a tank or empty a tank, etc. Here we can solve problems relating to these. First of all, you should practice the problems from Time and Work. Then it would be easier for you to solve the problems related to Pipes and Cisterns.
*If a pipe can fill a tank in 'x hours', then the part of tank filled in 1 hour is'1/x
*If a pipe can empty a full tank in 'y hours', then part of the tank emptying in 1 hour is '1/y'
*If one pipe can fill a tank in 'x hours' and another pipe can fill the tank in 'y hours', then the part of the tank filled in '1 hour' when both pipes are opened
.'.Time taken to fill the tank when both pipes are opened 
pipes are opened=xy/x  y
1.Two pipes A and B can fill a tank in 60 hours and 80 ho..................
Speed should be handled with almost care both in our daily life and in Exams too. In competitive exams we should attend the questions carefully with maximum speed so that these can be answered in minimum time, so that you can become a Government servant in minimum time.
*Speed of a moving body is the distance travelled in unit time.
Speed =Distance/Time
1.If A travels a certain distance at xkm/hr and B travels the same distance at y km/ hr, then the average speed of the whole journey is
2xy x  y
2.If an object travels at a speed of x km/ hr for half of the distance and y km/hr for the remaining half, then the
average speed = 2xy/xy
3.If a man goes at a speed of x km/hr for a certain distance and then another distance at a speed of y km/hr,average 
speed is given by :xy/xy
1.Find the total dist..................
This is applicable to our daily life too. So studying this portion not only helps in acheiving high rank in various exams but also helps in gaining better life.
Gain = Selling Price (SP) - Cost Price (CP)
Loss = CP - SP
Loss% =Loss x 100/CP
1.Arun bought chocolates for Rs. 500 and sold it for Rs. 650. Find his gain percent.
CP =500; SP =650
Profit = 650 - 500 = Rs. 150
Gain% = 150/500*100=30%
2.If the loss % of an article is 20 and the cost price is Rs. 5050, find the selling price of the article.
20 = Loss x 100
.'. Selling price of the article = RS.4040
3.Binoj buys a cycle for Rs. 4700 and
spends Rs...................
*Some may find it difficult to solve the problems based on Simple Interest and Compound Interest. This is due to lack of interest. Anyway, three or four questions are frequently asked from this area. So it is a must to study and practice this portion.
*Interest is basically of fee charged for borrowing the money, ie it is the extra money a borrower has to pay in addition the sum borrowed or loan taken. Two types of Interest are Simple Interest (SI) and Compound Interest (CI).
Definitions of certain terms used here are as follows.
It is the money borrowed for a certain period.
It is the sum of Principal and Interest.
3.TIME (T)
It is the period for which the money is borrowed.
It is the money paid..................
*Area of rectangle (A)
=length x breadth (I x b)
*Perimeter (P) = 2 x (length  breadth) 
= 2(lb)
1.The breadth of a rectangular filed is 80%
of its length. Find the area of the field if its perimeter is__ 
Let x metres be the length of the rectangular filed.
Then, Breadth =80/100x=4/5x
Perimeter = 2(1  b) = 90 cm 
.'.90 = 2(x4x/5)
90 = 2(9x/5)
.'.length = 25 cm 
Area = I x b
= 25x80/100x25 
= 500 cm2
2.The perimeter of a rectangle is 48cm: If the length of the rectangle is 16 cm, find the ratio between length and breadth.
2(1  b) =48 
ie, 2(16 b) = 48 
32  2b = 48 
2b = 16
.'.b = 8
.'. I :b= 16:8 = 2:1
3.If the length and breadth of a rectangular plot be in..................
*There will be atleast one clock in every house even though mobile phones have reduced the usage of clocks. Have you ever tried to findout the angle between hourhand and minute hand of a clock and so on. These are the questions that are frequently asked in various competitive exams. The most practical way is that "Watch your time and save your time'.
*A clock has two hands: - the smaller hand is called the Hourhand and the larger one is called the Minute hand.
*The face or dial of dock is a circle whose cirumference is divided into 60 equal parts, named Minute spaces.
*In 60 minutes, hourhand will move 5 minute spaces while the minute hand will move 60 minute spaces. In this way, by travelling 60 minute spaces, the minute hand gains 55 minutes on the hour hand.
*Both the hands of a clock coincide once in every hour. They are in the same straight line when they are coincident or opposite to each other.
*When the t..................
Active and Passive Voice

Harry ate six shrimp at dinner. (active)
At dinner, six shrimp were eaten by Harry. (passive)

Beautiful giraffes roam the savannah. (active)
The savannah is roamed by beautiful giraffes. (passive)

Sue changed the flat tire. (active)
The flat tire was changed by Sue. (passive)

We are going to watch a movie tonight. (active)
A movie is going to be watched by us tonight. (passive)


*A word formed out of the first letters of a few words
Ans : Acronym
*A person who avoids physical pleasures and leads a simple life
Ans : Ascetic
*A fist of matters to be discussed at a meeting  
Ans :  Agenda
*The story of one's own life 
Ans : Autobiography 
*Proof that someone else was at another place when the cirme alleged to have been committed by that person
Ans : Alibi
*General Government to all political offenders
Ans :  Amnesty
*That which does not bear the .name of the writer
Ans :  Anonymous
*Disbelief in the exiatence of God
Ans : Atheism
*To turn friends into enemies
Ans :  Allenate
*Government by the nobility
Ans :  Aristocracy 
*Break down - Lose contorl
*Break into - Enter by force
*Break out - Start suddenly
*Break up - Come to an end
*Bring about - Cause to happen
*Call at - Visit a place
*Call by -To visit briefly
*Call for - Demand, to requier
*Calf in - Send for
*call off - Cancel
*Call on - Visit a person
*Call out - To cry, shout for help 
*Call upon - Appeal
*Came about - happen
*Come across - find by chance
*Come of - happen as a result of
*Come out - be published:become known
*Come out of - be the result of
*Come up to - reach
*Get about - begin to do something
*Get across - To convey, to annoy
*Get along - To manage, to proceed
*Get along with - To be friendly, t..................
*Army of ants
*Block of flats
*Bed of oysters 
*Bouquet of flowers 
*Brood of hens/chickens 
*Bunch of grapes 
*Bundle of sticks
*Company of parrots
*Crew of sailors
*Crowd of people
*Herd of cattle/cows/donkeys
*Fleet of ships/cruisers
*Flight of pigeons
*Team of players
*Pack of volves
*Flight/Flock of birds
*Flock of camels
*Pack of cards, Loaf of bread ,
*Shoal/school of fish.
*Heap of corn Stock of grain
*Flock of sheep
*Herd of lions 
*Herd of swans 
*Hive of bees
*Swarm of bees
*Pile of books 
*Herd of nomads 
*Gang of thieves 
*Library of books 
*Utter of pigs 
*File of papers
*Abandon x Keep
*abhor x love  
*abridge x expand
*abrupt x gradual
*accept x refuse
*accumulatex scatter
*acquit x convict
*admire x despise
*adroit x clumsy
*adversary x ally
*Adversity x prosperity
*affection x hatred
*Affirm x deny
*Agile x sluggish
*Alleviate x worsen
*Ambiguity x clarity  
*Arrogant x humble
*Ascent x descent
*Barbarous x civilized
*Bare x covered
*Beneficial x injurious
*Benevolent x cruel
*Baised x impartial
*Boisterous x quite
*Bondage x freedom
*Compassionatex mercilless
*Complex x simple
*Complaintx adamant
*Conceal x reveal
*Consolidatex disintegrate
*Converge x diverge
*Convoluted x  straight  
*deceit x honesty
*Defy x obey
*Dejection x exhilaration
*Receive - Twelfth - Diarrhea
*Leisure - Syllable - Entrepreneur
*Necessary -  Accumulate - Annihilate
*Embarrassing Consequently -Accommodate
*Achievement - individual - Erroneous
*Separate - Business - Accustomed
*Believe - Definitely - Adolescent
*Successful - Fascinate - Ambiguous
*Desperate - Horrified - Assimilate
*Occurring - Repetition - Accompaniment
*Approximately - Aggregate - Courteous
*Parallel - Alligator - Delinquent
*Disappoint - Bureaucracy - Deceive
*Weird - Characteristic - Advan
*Humorous - Coincidence - Reminiscence
*Apparently - Corridor - Memorize
*Disappearance - Deciduous
1.(a) Balance 
(b) Bachelor
(c) Bunglow 
(d) Bureau
2.(a) Conceive 
(b) Committee
(c) Colonel 
(d) Commemarate..................
*Animals - sounds
*Apes - gibber
*Asses - bray
*Badgers - growl
*Bats - screech
*Bears - growl
*Bees - hum and buzz
*Beetles - drone
*Birds - chirp 
*Bitterns - boom
*Blackbirds - whistle
*Bulls - bellow
*Calves - bleat
*Camels - grunt
*Cats - mew 
*Cattle - moo, low
*Chicks - cheep
*Chickens - cluck
*Cocks - crow
*Cows - low, moo
*Crows - caw 
*Cuckoos - coo cuckoo 
*Deers - bell  
*Dogs - bark, woof 
*Dolphins - Click 
*Donkeys-bray, hee-haw
*Doves - coo
*Ducks - quack 
*Eagles - scream, cry
*Elephants - trumpet
*Falcons - chant
*Foxes - bark, yelp or simper
*Frogs - croak, ribbit
*Giraffes - bleat
*Goats - bleat, baa
*Geese - cackle
*Grasshoppers - chirp
*Hares - squeak[/b..................
Ant - Hill or Formicary 
Bat - Roost, Cave
Bear - Den
Beaver - Lodge 
Bee - Hive
Bird - Nest
Cat - Cattery, Lain Den
Dog - Kennel
Fox - Earth, Den, Hole,  Lair  
Hare - Form
Horse  - Paddock, Stable, Stall,AStud  
Lion - Den
Mole - Burrow, Fortress, Tunnel 
Pig - Pen, Sty
Rabbit-Warren; Burrow,Cony-garth, Hutch
Sheep - Fold, Pen
Snake - Nest
Spider - Web
Squirrel - Drey
Termite - Mound
Tiger - Lair
Wolf - Lair, Den
(a) drey         (b) pen 
(c ) coop        (d) hole
(a) mound  (b) stable 
(c ) earth    (d) pen
(a) stable (b) kennel 
(c ) lair      (d) pasture
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